Conflict Between the North and South

Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free Society
"There is no rivalry, no competition to get employment among slaves, as among free laborers.  Nor is there a war between master and slave.  The master's interest prevents his reducing the slave's allowance or wages in infancy or sickness, for he might lose the slave by so doing.  ...The poor are as hospitable as the rich, the negro as the white man.  Nobody dreams of turning a friend,a relative, or a stranger from his door.  The very negro who deems it no crime to steal, would scorn to sell his hospitality."

- George Fitzhugh, Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free Society; on life in the South

This is an argument of one of many pro-slavery advocates in the South during the antebellum period.  As the South's economy is entirely dependent upon slavery, the South would naturally try to defend it.  And when the North's abolitionist movement was reinvigorated for both moral and and economic reasons, the South wouldn't just let them take their "property" away from them. The following are several key events during which the North and South grew farther and father apart, until the latter broke off from the former, initiating the Civil War.

The Missouri Compromise

·         Established in 1820
·         Missouri wanted to become a state
·         Wasn't sure whether to enter as a slave state or free state
·         Possible upset in balance caused the South to threaten     secession
·         Maine entered as a free state allowing Missouri to enter as a slave state
·         Balanced the situation
·         Compromise lasted for 30 years
Map of America in relation to the Missouri Compromise

The Compromise of 1850

Map of America in relation to the Compromise of 1850

  • Created due to the fact that California wanted to become a free state
  • Made California a free state
  • The Mexican Cession became subject to popular sovereignty
  • Fugitive slave act created to balance California becoming a free state
  • Ended slave trade
  • Made it harder for slaves to escape and defend themselves in court
  • Southerners abused the slave act as a result
  • Northerners refused to obey the law
In a speech made by Senator Salmon Portland Chase, he explained the reasoning behind his anti-slavery views. According to him, "slaveholders have always interfered" by forcing Ohio to adopt the Fugitive Slave bill, Jefferson Davis forcing them to  "legislate for slave protection in the Territories," and the helplessness of Ohio to speak against slavery, for fear that "the Baltimore platform will prosecute us." 

The Kansas-Nebraska Act

  • Kansas and Nebraska were proposed to popular sovereignty in 1854
  • Northerners and Southerners went to the states to force them to vote in their favor
  • Threats, violence and murder broke out
  • John Brown's famous raid killed five pro-slavery men

Painting portraying John Brown's Raid

The Beginning of the Republican Party

Current Republican Symbol
  • Compromise of 1850 brought about a new party rising in the country
  • This party was the Republicans
  • Opposed to slavery
  • Argued against it in the territories
  • Gained power in the North due to its abundance of abolitionists and anti-slave movements
  • Joined the House of Representatives in 1854
  • South felt that they'd be oppressed by the party

Interpretation of the Union

·         North and South had different views on the "Union" itself
·         North believed more in federal power over state power
·         States should obey federal law
·         South felt that if they didn't like the laws they were allowed to secede
·         North had advantage in the House of Representatives
·         South felt they needed to secede

The Election of 1860

Abe Lincoln running for second term with Hannibal Hamlin as Vice-President
  • Lincoln's victory in 1860 crushed the hopes of the South
  • South felt that Lincoln and the Republicans would further oppress them and deny them their rights
  • Union could no longer be one
  • South felt it was time to take action
  • Lincoln's victory began the secession of the South and formation of the Confederate states of America

Economic Differences

Industrial Factories in the North
A Southern Plantation Worked by Slaves

·         North favored the idea of economics
·         Was mainly industrial
·         Believed in a high protective tariff to help further American economy
·         South was agricultural and needed free labor of slaves
·         Many of their goods were imported from Europe
·         Needed low tariffs
·         Felt like they were "paying for the development of the North"

The Dred Scott Decision

Dred Scott, Slave
·         A slave living in free territory
·         Master died five years later
·         Sent back to South and tried for his freedom
·         Supreme court ruled against him
·         Was considered property, not a citizen
·         Angered the North, making them feel that slavery was allowed in free territories

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